Glossary

Glossary

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Accessories (for roofs)

Complementary pieces for roofing.

Argil

Formed through the disaggregation of feldspar rock that becomes malleable when wet. Argil can be found near riverbeds, often forming banks along the margins. Argil can be white, red, gray and brown. It is composed mostly of hydrated alumina sillicata - - Al2O3 · 2 SiO2 · 2 H2O, has low cristallinity and minute dimensions (particles under 2 µm in diameter). Mineralogically, its main components are quartz, illite, caulinite, anatase, hematite and feldspar.

Break

Same as fracture.

Clay tiles

Products for non-continuous application on inclined roofs and wall linings, made by standardizing processes (extrusion and/ or pressing), drying and baking prepared argil, with or without additives.

Construction products

Products to be used or applied permanently in construction projects.

Coverage

of composing elements (roof tiles and accessories)

Crack

Structural defect that consists of a gap with a more or less regular shape affecting the thickness of the piece and is visible to the naked eye.

Distance between laths or gauge

Length of the exposed part of a roof tile or accessory, measured longitudinally.

Eave

Edge of a roof along the outer part of a protruding roof slope, made of roof tiles

Eaves

Edges of a roof along the outer part of a roof slope, projecting beyond the side of a building and composed of accessory pieces.

Effect of ice

This term refers to the wear caused on roofing pieces by successive frost-defrost cycles.

Engobe

Type of coating, permeable or impermeable, or the material used therefore.

Extrusion

Production process.

Fissure

Crack with a more or less regular shape that does not affect the whole thickness of a piece.

Fixation orifice

Open or easily pierced orifice for the fixation of a product on the support structure.

Fracture

Structural defect that consists on the breaking of a product into two or more fragments.

Garrett

Space under a roof slope

Gutter / Joist

Concave, open piece, usually made of metal, through which liquids run, placed horizontally along the eaves of a roof to drain rainwater, thus avoiding infiltrations.

Hygroscopy

Property of materials relating to their capacity to absorb water. Ceramic materials are less hygroscopic than concrete or mortar.

Lath

Secondary structural piece of a roof arranged in a perpendicular line in relation to the highest inclination of a roof slope, where coating elements are supported.

Linearity

When used in relation to flat or fitting roof tiles, the value of linearity is given by the deviation in a straight line as measured from the roof tile brim, both longitudinally and transversally.
For Canudo roof tiles, linearity is given by the deviation in a straight line as measured along the generating line at the bottom of a roof tile’s concave end.

Mechanical resistance to flexion

This test is conducted by applying an increasing force on a roof tile until it breaks. The value registered at the breaking point indicates the flexion of the roof tile.

Outeiro da Cabeça

Village located 18 Km from Torres Vedras.
The village covers an area of 5,7 Km2 and has a population of 932 inhabitants. Its main economical activities revolve around red clay ceramic industries (roof tiles and bricks) and agriculture.

PDM

 PDM: Municipal Master Plans (Portuguese).

Pre-hole

Fixation orifice that is not fully pierced through.

Recommended overlap

Roof tile length that must be overlapped to the next roof tile.

Roofing functional demands

Minimum criteria to be met by a roof. The proper performance of any roof depends on three main factors: correct conception at the project stage, good individual performance of clay pieces and their correct application on the roof.

Roof slopes

Where joists are placed.

Roof tile fixation

Use of nails, screws, metal hooks or any other auxiliary fixation mechanisms that prevent pieces from moving.

Roof tile gap

Gauge or distance between laths.

Slope

Also known as pitch or roof surface; any flat surface of an inclined roof.

Splinter

Surface defect over 7mm on average, consisting of a fraction of the material, separated from the ceramic body on the visible side of the product.

Support spindle

Relief at the underside of a roof tile or accessory allowing its fixation on the support structure, generally consisting of laths.

Tone

Colour shade variation on the same make of pieces.

Transversal profiles

This term is applied to Canudo roof tiles and refers to the width of its internal edges.

Underside roof tile ventilation

Also known as micro-ventilation; this refers to the circulation of air near the underside of a roof tile. Aids in the drying of absorbed rainwater and eliminating water vapour from inside a building, which could otherwise condensate on the underside of the roof tile; also aids in the conservation of the lath work, when it is made of wood. Improves roof tile resistance to the effect of ice.

Ventilation

Air circulation process.

Watertight

In this context, the term relates to the capacity of a roof to completely prevent the entry of water. Impermeability of the clay material used and total roof coverage must be ensured, as well as the correct inclination of the roof. Wind and rain, which in conjunction can provoke ascending water movement along the roof surface, are a serious challenge to the watertight qualities of a roof.

Features

Quick to apply and with a robust fitting system, this tile offers high levels of resistance in the covering.

Features

Traditional colours

Torreense offers different surface finishings for the Lusa tile, responding to regional and architectural specificities: natural red, white and brown.

Natural Red
White
Brown

Elegance and greater surface covering per square metre

With just 11.5 tiles per square metre, a lighter covering is obtained, without compromising the aesthetic elegance (proportionality in the form of the verge against the edging).

Products with and without
water repellent

Products with and without 
water repellent

Availability of the product with or without water repellent. Torreense suggests the use of non water repellent products.*

Exclusively selected
type of clay

Exclusively selected
type of clay

Unique natural tonality and uniformity of the surface finishing (minimum fixation/adherence of the materials in suspension).

High level
of resistance

High level
of resistance

Greater resistance to transport, fitting and walking on the roofing than any other product on the market.

*

Despite the initial appearance of the water repellent product, Torreense suggests the use of non water repellent products since these have a better long-term performance, especially in terms of resistance to ice and marine salts.